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As Divided for a Regular Year
Tanya for 20 Tamuz
For when a man sins, the Divine vitality that flows forth from the Shechinah descends into the chambers of kelipah and sitra achra, and from there that individual in turn derives nurture at the time of his sins.
Repentance redeems the Shechinah from its exile and returns the flow to its proper place.
This was the theme of the previous chapter].
However, the true and direct path to the lower level of teshuvah, returning the latter hei as noted above, involves two general elements.
[These two elements are:
Both are necessary in order to ensure that the lower level of repentance will be true and direct.
- awakening G-d's supreme compassion for his soul, and
- the subjugation and nullification of evil.
The Rebbe Shlita notes that although we have previously learned (Chapter 1) that the kernel of repentance is a firm and wholehearted resolution not to commit a particular sin again, nevertheless without the two basic elements about to be discussed such repentance will be neither true nor direct.
Truth implies permanence,  as in the verse,  "The lip of truth shall be established forever." Should one fail to take the preparatory steps about to be mentioned here, it is entirely possible that his forsaking sin - described above as repentance - will not be everlasting, hence not truthful.
Furthermore, these steps also make one's repentance "direct".
For a state of repentance can also be arrived at very indirectly, as in the case of R. Elazar ben Durdaya, who was led to repentance by circumstances which were in themselves evil.  The direct path to repentance, by contrast, is found by means of the steps that the Alter Rebbe now describes].
The first is to awaken supreme compassion from the Source of mercy for one's Divine spirit and soul.
[There are two distinct states of Divine compassion, indicated by the terms "Merciful Father" and "Father of Mercy". 
The former term (Av Harachaman) merely signifies that G-d possesses the attribute, or middah, of mercy - and since middah means not only "attribute" but also "measure", it refers to a finite quality of mercy.
The latter term (Av Harachamim) stresses the fact that G-d is the father, or fountainhead, of all mercy.
Arousing His essential quality of mercy "from the Source of mercy" thus means arousing His infinite measure of compassion - supreme compassion], that has fallen from a lofty height [lit., "rooftop"], the Infinite Source of Life, into a deep pit. 
[Not merely from a rooftop but from a "lofty rooftop"; not merely into a pit, but into a "deep pit."]
Namely, the chambers of defilement and sitra achra.
[As explained in the previous chapter, a person's sins degrade his soul to the chambers of the kelipot and sitra achra. Finding itself in such a sorry state, such a soul is indeed in need of Divine compassion.
[One should arouse Divine compassion] as well for the source [of the soul] in the Source of Life, the Four-Letter Name of G-d.
[Since the soul is rooted in the Tetragrammaton, its degradation - brought about by sin - correspondingly causes the flow of holiness that emanates from the Tetragrammaton to descend into the chambers of the kelipot and sitra achra. Hence not only the soul, but its Source too, is to be pitied].
As the verse states:  "He shall return to G-d and He will have compassion for him"; [i.e., the sinner shall return to G-d and have compassion for Him.
But how are we to understand the concept of arousing mercy for the Tetragrammaton?]
This means, arousing compassion for the life-giving power issuing from the Four-Letter Name, that has descended by stages into the chambers of the impure sitra achra, to give them vitality.
[This descent was brought about] by the deeds of man, and his evil schemes and thoughts.
[Evil thoughts alone suffice to make the vitality descend into the chambers of the kelipot and sitra achra].
[As explained by the Rebbe Shlita, the image is of the various channels and gutters of the mind through which thoughts, like gushing currents, rush fleetingly.
Thus, even transient evil thoughts that one harbors ephemerally can bind and shackle the King; they can exile the flow of vitality emanating from the Four-Letter Name of G-d].
And this state, as noted above,  is the exile of the Shechinah - [the Divine Presence, the level of Malchut ("Kingship") of the World of Atzilut].
The auspicious time for this [arousal of compassion] is Tikkun Chatzot, [the midnight lament for the exile of the Divine Presence], as pointed out in the note to Tikkun Chatzot in the Siddur; see there at length.
We thus find [in that prayer], "The crown of our head is fallen; woe to us, for we have sinned"; [i.e., sin causes the soul's Source ("the crown of our head") to topple into the depths of the kelipot and sitra achra].
Therefore the Holy One, blessed be He, is called the "humiliated King" in Pirkei Heichalot,  as R. Moshe Cordovero wrote, for there is no humiliation deeper than this, [than the ignominy of exile within the realm of the kelipot].
Especially when a thoughtful person meditates on the greatness of the Infinite One, Who permeates all worlds and encompasses all worlds, [for G-d provides vitality to created beings both in a manner which "permeates" each recipient according to its individual capacity, as well as in a manner that transcends and "encompasses" them], each person [meditating upon G-d's greatness] according to the range of his intellect and understanding, he will be extremely grieved over this.
[The richer one's perception of G-d's majesty, the more intense will be his feeling of compassion for his own soul and for its Source, the bound and humiliated King].
The second element [in one's preparation for a true and direct path to repentance] is to crush and subdue the kelipah and sitra achra, whose entire being is simply grossness and arrogance; as the verse states,  "If you exalt yourself like the eagle...."
This crushing and subjugation, absolutely to dust, is its death and nullification.
[Evil is crushed] through a broken and contrite heart, a sense of personal unworthiness, repugnance, and so forth.
[As explained in Part I, chapter 29, the animal soul - even of a Beinoni, how much more so of a sinner - is the very person himself. When his heart is humbled, his animal soul which derives from kelipah is, of course, humbled as well. Thus, crushing and subduing one's arrogance crushes the kelipot and sitra achra].
This is described in the Zohar  on the verse,  "Offerings to G-d (Elokim) are a broken spirit; [i.e., the offering consists of breaking the spirit of the kelipot and sitra achra, and this is achieved through] a heart broken and contrite....."
For all animal offerings are dedicated to G-d (the Tetragrammaton), the attribute of mercy.
[This is why all verses which speak of offerings to G-d, refer to Him with the Tetragrammaton].
To Elokim, however, the Name indicating the attribute of justice, no animal offering is brought.
Instead, [I.e., what is considered an offering to Elokim, for the verse does, after all, state "the offerings to Elokim"?]
[The offering is] the shattering and removing of the spirit of defilement and sitra achra. This is the meaning of a "broken spirit."
How is the spirit of the sitra achra broken? When the heart is broken and contrite..... 
- (Back to text) Note of the Rebbe Shlita: "As in Part I, end of chapter 13."
- (Back to text) Mishlei 12:19.
- (Back to text) Avodah Zarah 17a.
- (Back to text) Note of the Rebbe Shlita: "Likkutei Torah, Nasso 23a, and references there."
- (Back to text) Note of the Rebbe Shlita: "An expression of the Talmud in Chagigah 5b. The word `roof' is omitted in the text of Rashi in the Talmud, but is to be found in the text of Rashi in Ein Yaakov."
- (Back to text) Yeshayahu 55:7.
- (Back to text) Note of the Rebbe Shlita: "Shir HaShirim 7:6; see Tzemach Tzedek, ad loc. This requires further clarification."
- (Back to text) Note of the Rebbe Shlita: "Addenda to Tikkunei Zohar, Tikkun Vav."
- (Back to text) Note of the Rebbe Shlita: "Concerning all the above see [Tanya,] Part I, ch. 45, and the notes referring to it by the Tzemach Tzedek on Eichah, p. 22 (in Or HaTorah on Nach, Vol. II, p. 1053), concerning the variations, etc."
- (Back to text) Note of the Rebbe Shlita: "Chapter 18."
- (Back to text) Yirmeyahu 49:16; Ovadiah 1:4.
- (Back to text) Note of the Rebbe Shlita: "Vayikra 5a."
- (Back to text) Tehillim 51:19.
- (Back to text) Note of the Rebbe Shlita: "This, too, is implied in the Zohar."
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